[dropcap background=”#FF9800″ color=”#FFFFFF”]H[/dropcap]ardware is provided to enable the door to function as required. For example, hinges are provided for swinging doors, and guides are installed for sliding doors. Locks or latches are placed in or on doors to prevent them from being opened. Knobs or pulls are attached to doors for hand control.
Builder’s Hardware. This is a general term applied to fastenings and devices, such as nails, screws, locks, hinges, and pulleys. These items generally are classified as either finishing hardware or rough hardware.
Plumbing. The major systems for conveyance of liquids and gases in pipes within a building are classified as plumbing. Plumbing pipes usually are connected to others that extend outside the building to a supply source, such as a public water main or utility gas main, or to a disposal means, such as a sewer. For health, safety, and other reasons, pipes of different types of plumbing systems must not be interconnected, and care must be taken to prevent flow from one system to another.
The major purposes of plumbing are:
- to convey water and heating gas, if desired, [highlight background=”#FF9800″ color=”#FFFFFF”]from sources outside a building to points inside where the fluid[/highlight] or gas is needed, and
- to collect wastewater and storm water in the building, on the roof, or elsewhere on the site and convey the liquid to sewers outside the building.
- For these purposes, plumbing requires fixtures for collecting discharged water and wastes; pipes for supply and disposal; valves for controlling flow; drains, and other accessories.
Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC).
Part of the environmental control systems within buildings, along with lighting and sound control, HVAC is often necessary for the health and comfort of building occupants. Sometimes, however, HVAC may be needed for manufacturing processes, product storage, or operation of equipment, such as computers. HVAC usually is used to control temperature, humidity, air movement, and [tooltip data=”air quality in the interior of buildings” position=”top”]This is tooltips[/tooltip]. Ventilation is required to supply clean air for breathing, to furnish air for operation of combustion equipment, and to remove contaminated air. Ventilation, however, also can be used for temperature control by bringing outside air into a building when there is a desirable temperature difference between that air and the interior air.
The simplest way to ventilate is to open windows. When this is not practicable, mechanical ventilation is necessary. This method employs fans to draw outside air into the building and distribute the air, often through ducts, to interior spaces. The method, however, can usually be used only in mild weather. To maintain comfort conditions in the interior, the fresh air may have to be heated in cold weather and cooled in hot weather.
Heating and cooling of a building interior may be accomplished in any of a multitude of ways.
For health, safety, and comfort of occupants, a building interior should be provided with an adequate quantity of light, good quality of illumination, and proper color of light. The required illumination may be supplied by natural or artificial means.