A major objective of acoustics is provision of an environment that enhances communication in the building interior, whether the sound is created by speech or music. This is accomplished by installation of enclosures with appropriate acoustic properties around sound sources and receivers. Another important objective is reduction or elimination of noise—unwanted sound—from building interiors. This may be accomplished by elimination of the noise at the source, by installation of sound barriers, or by [highlight background=”#383838″ color=”#FFFFFF”]by placing sound-absorbing materials[/highlight] on the surfaces of enclosures.
Still another objective is reduction or elimination of vibrations that can annoy occupants, produce noise by rattling loose objects, or crack or break parts or contents of a building. The most effective means of preventing undesirable vibrations is correction of the source. Otherwise, the source should be isolated from the building structure and potential transmission paths should be interrupted with carefully designed discontinuities. Electric Power and Communication Systems.
Purchased power is brought from the power lines connected
Electric power is generally bought from nearby utility and often supplemented for emergency purposes by power from batteries or a generating plant on the site. Purchased power is brought from the power lines connected to the generating source to an entrance control point and a meter in the building. From there, conductors distribute the electricity throughout the building to outlets where the power can be tapped for lighting, heating, and operating electric devices.
[tabs active=”1″][tab title=”Stairway”]Railings are placed along the sides of the stairway and floor openings for safety reasons. Also, structural members may be provided to support the stairs and the floor edges. Often, in addition, the stairway must be enclosed for fire protection.[/tab] [tab title=”Escalators”]Escalators, or powered stairs, are installed in such buildings as department stores and transportation terminals, or in the lower stories of office buildings and hotels, where there is heavy pedestrian traffic between floors.[/tab] [tab title=”Elevators”]Such powered stairs consist basically of a conveyor belt with steps attached; an electric motor for moving the belt, and steps, controls, and structural supports.[/tab][/tabs]
Two interrelated types of electrical systems are usually provided within a building.
- One type is used for communications, including data, telephone, television, background music, paging, signal and alarm systems.
- The second type serves the other electrical needs of the building and its occupants.
In addition to conductors and outlets, an electrical system also incorporates devices and apparatus for controlling electric voltage and current. Because electricity can be hazardous, the system must be designed and installed to prevent injury to occupants and damage to building components.
In multistory buildings, provision must be made for movement of people, supplies, and [tooltip data=”equipment between the various levels” position=”top”]This is tooltips[/tooltip]. This may be accomplished with ramps, stairs, escalators, elevators, dumbwaiters, vertical conveyors, pneumatic tubes, mail chutes, or belt conveyors. Some off the mechanical equipment, however, may not be used for conveyance of people.
[quote cite=”Van Helsing” url=”http://www.karatok.com”]A stairway consists of a series of steps and landings. Each step consists of a horizontal platform, or tread, and a vertical separation or enclosure, called a riser.[/quote]
A ramp, or sloping floor, is often used for movement of people and vehicles in such buildings as stadiums and garages. In most buildings, however, stairs are installed because they can be placed on a steeper slope and therefore occupy less space than ramps. Nevertheless, federal rules require at least one handicap accessible entrance for all new buildings.